Frequently used serology test may not detect antibodies that could confirm protection against reinfection of COVID-19

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coronavirus , COVID-19
This transmission electron microscope picture exhibits SARS-CoV-2 — also called 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19 — remoted from a affected person within the US. Virus particles are proven rising from the floor of cells cultured within the lab. The spikes on the periphery of the virus particles give coronaviruses their identify, crown-like. Credit: NIAID-RML

Two differing kinds of detectable antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) inform very completely different tales and may point out methods to reinforce public well being efforts against the illness, in accordance with researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding area (S-RBD) are purported to neutralize virus an infection, whereas the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) antibody may usually solely point out publicity to the virus, not protections against reinfection.

The outcomes, printed immediately in JCI Insight, spotlight findings from a quantitative serological enzyme-linked (ELISA) utilizing SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and N-protein for the detection of circulating antibodies in 138 serial serum samples from confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized sufferers and 464 wholesome and non-COVID-19 serum samples that have been collected between June 2017 and June 2020.

Results confirmed that 3% of wholesome and non-COVID-19 samples collected throughout the pandemic in Houston have been constructive for the N-protein antibody, however only one.6% of these had the S-RBD antibody. Of samples with the S-RBD antibody, 86% had neutralizing capability—which means they could stop reinfection of COVID-19, however solely 74% of samples with N-protein had neutralizing capability. When constructive for each, 96.5% exhibited neutralizing capability.

“These findings suggest that detection of N-protein binding antibodies does not always correlate with presence of S-RBD neutralizing antibodies, and that the presence of the S-RBD antibody is the best indicator of any potential protection against reinfection,” stated senior creator Raghu Kalluri, M.D., Ph.D., professor and chair of Cancer Biology. “We caution against the extensive use of N-protein based serology testing for determination of potential COVID-19 immunity, and we believe that accurate and reliable S-RBD serological testing is needed to carefully identify individuals with neutralizing antibodies in order to help advance recovery efforts around the globe.”

At current, some commercially out there serological assessments confirm solely the presence antibodies to the N-protein, with over 200 industrial and hospital laboratory testing services at the moment utilizing these assessments. While these assessments point out publicity to the virus, they do not appear to counsel immunity to reinfection. These findings reiterate the necessity to educate on what an antibody test consequence imply for every affected person, and that public well being efforts ought to give attention to methods to encourage sufferers to proceed vigilant security precautions even with the presence of N-protein .

“In addition to serological assessment of the general population, we are hopeful these results will aid in rapid assessment of the efficacy of vaccine candidates as they are translated into the broader population,” stated lead creator Kathleen McAndrews, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow in Cancer Biology.


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More info:
Kathleen M. McAndrews et al, Heterogeneous antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding area and nucleocapsid with implications on COVID-19 immunity, JCI Insight (2020). DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.142386

Citation:
Frequently used serology test may not detect antibodies that could confirm protection against reinfection of COVID-19 (2020, August 14)
retrieved 14 August 2020
from https://medicalxpress.com/information/2020-08-frequently-serology-antibodies-reinfection-covid-.html

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